Turn the pages. Read the code. Hear the words.

“Turn every page. Never assume anything. Turn every goddamned page.” — Robert Caro, Working

So goes the wisdom super-biographer Robert Caro received from a mentor when he was an investigative reporter in New York. Caro went on to apply this energy and depth to write a sprawling biography on real estate developer Robert Moses and four volumes on the life of LBJ.

I like the energy, determination, and purpose of Caro’s advice. In his writing, Caro takes a maximalist1 perspective2. He looks to understand the system. Caro read every original document in every archive he could find (“turning the pages”) to ensure he fully grasped the context of historical events and didn't miss any details that might change the interpretation of events. Caro tries to load the whole state of his subject into his head and notes. Only then does he start writing his expansive biographies.

1. Read the code

Building software benefits from the same energy and determination displayed by Caro. As I’m working on a project, I flip between code I’m writing, code I’m using, and adjacent systems. Once I’ve read enough to have the problem and system in my head, I can move through the system and answer questions about it with that everything is at my fingertips feeling3. Fantastic.

Recommended: read third-party libraries, frameworks, standard/core/prelude libraries. Read demo code. Find inspiration, learn something new, and build the muscle for reading code with confidence.

2. Hear the words

When I’m really listening, avoiding the urge to think through what I’ll say next, I’m doing my best work as a coach or mentor. When I really hear and understand what a colleague is trying to accomplish or solve, it’s a bigger win for everyone.

Subsequently, I can switch to brainstorm or solution mode. Not before.

Recommended: literally listen to what they’re saying. Especially for the leaders and managers out there. Get the context needed to understand what they’re thinking. Ask clarifying questions until you’re sure they understand what they’re thinking. Don’t start responding until you’re sure you understand the context and the kind of response4 expected of you.

3. Build a model

Reading (words and code) and listening are great ways to build a mental model of how an organization, system, team, or project works. That said, a model is mostly predictions, not rules or hard-won truths.

To verify your model, you have to get hands-on at some point. A model is likely invalid unless it’s been applied hands-on to the system in question. Make a change, propose an updated process. See what happens, what breaks, who pushes back. Building (with code, with words) upon the model will evolve your understanding and predictions in ways that further reading or listening will not.

Recommended: turn reading words, reading code, and listening into a model of how your code-base, team, or organization work together. Apply that model to a problem you’re facing and use the results to improve your predictions on what actions will produce welcome outcomes. Rinse and repeat.

4. Go forth and deeply understand a system

With due credit to Robert Caro, I suggest doing more than “turning the pages”:

“Read the code. Read every damn function or module you’re curious about.” — me, a few months ago

"Listen to what they're saying. Hear every damn word until they're done talking." — me, several weeks ago

Next time you think “I need more context here” or “that seems like magical code/thinking”, go deeper. Take 15 minutes to read the code, or listen 15 seconds longer to your conversation-mate.

Turn the pages. Read the code. Hear the words.

  1. Aside from his biography quote above, all of his books are doorstoppers.
  2. Extensively aided, it should be noted, by further research and organization by his wife.
  3. Aka Fingerspitzengefühl
  4. e.g. commiserating, brainstorming, un-blocking, taking action, etc.
Adam Keys @therealadam